Last Updated 2 years by Shariful Alam Pavel
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Magical compounds of Hemp
Hemp is completely another agenda from Marijuana though both species came from Cannabis sativa. You will be flattered by knowing the amazing chemical compounds of hemp.
Cannabis consists of about 600 different molecules and around 140 of which are called cannabinoids because reportedly they work on our body’s endocannabinoid system.
Endocannabinoid works in our body both as a traffic signal that controls appetite, inflammation, temperature, memory, and learning. Though there is much more scope for more research that can open new windows for us.
Let me break down all the chemical compounds of Hemp in this article.
Difference between hemp and marijuana
The difference between hemp and marijuana is just like the difference between baseball and football. CBD is extracted from hemp that is beneficial for our health. Other Hand, Marijuana is only used for psychoactive pleasure like for being high.
So, we can see the prospects of baseball and football are different and THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) makes the difference between Hemp and Marijuana.
While in marijuana there is as much as 30% THC whereas in CBD there is only 0.3% THC.
Hemp breeding is focused on producing other cannabinoids, like CBD, CBC, CBG, and breeding Marijuana for its THC content.
Before moving on we should know what Cannabinoids are?
Chemical compounds that are produced in cannabis are called cannabinoids.
Even the human body makes cannabinoids that are called endocannabinoids that work as neurotransmitters and hormones.
All living things have an endocannabinoid (ECS) system which acts as a communication medium for the internal organs. It implements messages from the brain to the rest of the body.
If ECS isn’t functioning properly our balance system (homeostasis) will fail. This can create different kinds of chronic health conditions.
Some cannabinoids are non-psychoactive, like CBD, CBC, THCC, CBG, CBDV, etc. How much we intake them will never make us feel high because there is no THC.
Other hand, there are some moderate psychoactive cannabinoids including HHC, delta 7 THC, delta 8 THC, delta 9 THC, and delta 10 THC.
By now, most people have heard of THC and CBD as these are the most abundant compounds in the cannabis plant.
Till today there are at least 66 separate cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. The most surprising part is that their chemical bonding is almost the same but each of them has a separate influence on our ECS (Endocannabinoid system).
Common Cannabinoids/Chemical Compounds of HEMP
There are already more than 100 compounds of hemp and researchers have given signs that more cannabinoids are yet to be discovered. Some of the most common chemical compounds of hemp include:
- Cannabidiol — CBD
- Cannabichromene — CBC
- Cannabigerol — CBG
- Tetrahydrocannabinol — THC
- Tetrahydrocannabivarin — THCV
- Cannabidivarin — CBDV
- Cannabinol — CBN
- Tetrahydrocannabiorcol — THCC
We have already learned about CBD; now moving on to other cannabinoids.
CBC stands for cannabichromene. It is one of the six major cannabinoids produced in both hemp and marijuana and it is non-psychoactive. CBC has a relaxant effect on the central nervous system.
Reportedly, some studies even found that CBC could be more effective as an antidepressant than CBD.
Research shows that CBC works for anti-depression, anti-acne chronic pain, painkiller, and neuroprotective agent, and neurodegenerative diseases. It has anti-cancer properties. Though much research is needed.
In the market, CBG (Cannabigerol) is creating a buzz for obvious good reasons and is often called the mother of all cannabinoids.
Every natural cannabinoid starts its lifecycle as CBG.
Researchers have already found a connection of the Benefits of CBG in our health and it has powerful appetite-stimulating effects. This cannabinoid has shown promising effects on fighting anxiety, promoting relaxation, supporting glaucoma and bacterial infection. CBG is also good for managing inflammation.
CBG is non-psychoactive and is often used to reduce the psychoactive effects of THC products.
Do you know why THC makes people high?
THC activates the CB1 receptors which is one of the main cannabinoid receptors in our CNS (central nervous system).
It also activates 5HT1A & 5HT2A. These are specific serotonin receptors located in our nerve cells.
CBG has the properties to combat the psychoactive effects of THC by blocking the CB1 & 5HT1A receptors.
Recently, commercial companies are trying to bring more CBG products to the market with CBD.
THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is the main reason marijuana offers psychoactive effects when people inhale it.
THC helps to release the serotonin in our brain that produces euphoric and mind-altering effects.
So, these kinds of effects can cause problems for people like anxiety, insomnia, or schizophrenia. It makes people high as well as dependent on it. That’s why Marijuana is illegal in most countries.
But there are more than one type of THC. They are delta 9 THC and delta 8 THC.
Delta 9 THC is the primary cannabinoid in marijuana plants and acquires at least 25% of the plant’s weight. Where Delta 8 THC is not half as strong as delta 9 and only 0.3% of the total weight.
And there is delta 8 THC that is often considered the middle-ground between delta 9 THC and CBD. Because delta 8 THC is actually derived from CBD.
Delta 8 THC has similarities with CBD and supports neurological function in patients with nerve disorders. Delta 8 THC helps relax, Reduces inflammation, is sleep-supportive, Alleviates chronic pain, can be used as a sedative.
It can also provide mild psychoactive effects.
Research has shown that THCV (tetrahydrocannabivarin) has the potential that may support to treat our obesity and diabetes epidemics.
Though all the research is on the initial level and a full report on THCV will take time.
In a 2016 study published in American Diabetes Association, THCV was shown to significantly improve fasting glucose, pancreatic beta-cell function (the cells that make insulin and that ultimately fail in diabetes), as well as several other hormones associated with diabetes.
In both animals and humans, it has been well-tolerated without significant side effects.
CBD and CBDV (cannabidivarin) are two totally separate chemical compounds that are found in cannabis Sativa.
Preliminary research on CBDV suggests it could be a better option for neuropathic pain than CBD.
CBDV is non-psychoactive and is mostly in African landrace strains.
CBDV excels in some areas better than CBD. CBD is better for chronic pain, inflammation, hormonal dysfunction, while CBDV is better for neuropathic pain, migraines, and epilepsy.
The problem is that CBDV is rarely found in concentrations not higher than 1% in most cannabis plants. This makes it difficult and expensive to source enough quantities to use for medical research and make products commercially.
Unfortunately, there isn’t much research available for CBDV. GW Pharmaceuticals funded most of the research on it. We hope more research will be conducted in the future on CBDV.
CBN (cannabinol) was the first naturally-occurring cannabinoid ever to be isolated back in 1896.
Cannabis that has been stored improperly, like too dry, or stored for a long period of time will be higher in CBN. In other words, hemp flowers that are kept for a long period have higher concentrations of cannabinol (CBN) than new fresh hemp flowers.
Though CBN has mild psychoactive effects in certain individuals but only in very high doses.
Researchers have found that CBN can be useful for treating insomnia, stress, OCD (Obsessive compulsive disorder), and anxiety
It can stimulate appetite, Anti-inflammatory & alleviate arthritis pain.
Final Thoughts: compounds of hemp
There are many cannabinoids; they are like the new kid on the block. Though CBD has prime attention, unfortunately, there is little focus on the other cannabinoids. Compounds of hemp need more attention just like a new movie from Marvel or DC.
From researchers to commercial companies, retail stores, regular users, and even one who wants to know more about HEMP everyone agrees to further research on cannabis and cannabinoids. Statistics published said, 94% of Americans now support legal access to medical cannabis.
Though there is more political agenda, big giant commercial agenda on Cannabis. There are many countries where Cannabis/hemp/CBD is still considered illegal.
Research that is conducted on humans with the benefits and side effects takes much time to be finished. But yes we are hoping day by day the good news will come to us that more cannabinoids will be found and people will have a natural supplement for their health!
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